Diamond and its properties
diamond is an independent mineral
with the highest hardness of all known substances (10 in Mohs hardness
scale). In chemical composition, diamond is virtually pure carbon crystallized
at cubic syngony.
One of most important properties of diamond is so-called brilliant luster,
which is characteristic of both faces of natural diamond crystals and
facets of polished diamond specimens. A high refraction
index of diamond (2.42) and high dispersion
(0.044) provide for the repeated light reflection inside a diamond grain,
which produces a glittering effect. The optical properties of diamond
are responsible for the extraordinary beauty and life of its cut forms.
Diamonds are used in many areas of human activity; however, first of all, these stones are known as gemstones of the highest value. Although all natural diamonds are considered gemstones, no more than 10-15% of quarried diamonds can be used in jewelry. The remainder are referred to as technical stock. Since the jewelry diamonds are rare in the nature; they become a luxury which not everyone can afford. Diamond has been highly valued over thousands of years of human history; however, the correct evaluation of a particular stone is an exquisite skill, on the verge of art. Every diamond specimen is individual; there are no two identical crystals in the nature.